Basic CPR & Choking First Aid

Posted on 2023-06-14
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CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)

Perform this emergency lifesaving procedure when the heart stops beating. Immediate CPR can double or triple chances of survival after cardiac arrest. Keeping the blood flow active – even partially – extends the opportunity for a successful resuscitation once trained medical staff arrive on site.

Infant CPR (Under 1 year old)

Check for Consciousness

  • Shout and tap or flick the bottom of the infant’s foot.
  • If there is no response and the infant is not breathing, call 911 and begin chest compressions.

Do 30 Compressions (See Figure 1)

  • Position the infant on a flat hard surface.
  • Imagine a horizontal line drawn between the infant’s nipples. Place two fingers of one hand just below this line, in the center of the chest.
  • Compress the chest about 1 1/2 inches.
  • Pump at a rate of 100-120 compressions/minute.

Open Airway (See Figure 2)
After 30 compressions, open the airway by gently tipping the head back by lifting the chin with one hand and pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.

Do 2 Rescue Breaths (See Figure 3)

  • Cover the baby’s mouth and nose with your mouth.
  • Gently blow until you see his or her chest rise. Let the air escape – the chest will go back down. Then give one more breath.
  • Give 2 breaths after every 30 chest compressions.

Continue CPR (Call 911 After 2 Minutes)
If you are by yourself, keep doing CPR for 2 minutes (about 5 cycles of compressions and breaths) before calling 911. Don’t stop CPR until help arrives or the infant becomes responsive.

Child CPR (1 year old to puberty)

Check for Consciousness

  • Shout their name and tap or shake the child’s shoulders.
  • If there is no response and the child is not breathing, call 911 and begin chest compressions.

Do 30 Compressions (See Figure 1)

  • Position the child on a flat hard surface.
  • Put one or 2 hands on the breastbone directly between the child’s nipples.
  • Compress the chest about 2 inches.
  • Pump at a rate of 100-120 compressions/minute.

Open Airway (See Figure 2)
After 30 compressions, open the airway by gently tipping the head back by lifting the chin with one hand and pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.

Do 2 Rescue Breaths (See Figure 3)

  • Cover the child’s mouth and pinch his/her nose closed with your fingers.
  • Gently blow until you see his or her chest rise. Let the air escape – the chest will go back down. Then give one more breath.
  • Give 2 breaths after every 30 chest compressions.

Continue CPR (Call 911 After 2 Minutes)
If you are by yourself, keep doing CPR for 2 minutes (about 5 cycles of compressions and breaths) before calling 911. Don’t stop CPR until help arrives or the child becomes responsive.

Adult CPR

Check for Consciousness (See Figure 1)

  • Tap the person’s shoulder and shout, “Are you OK?”
  • If there is no response call 911, or shout fro someone to call 911.

Do Chest Compressions (See Figures 2 & 3)

  • Position the victim face up on a firm, flat surface.
  • Place the heel of one hand in the center of the chest between the nipples, and the heel of the other hand on top.
  • Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on the chest between 2 inches – 2.4 inches.
  • Push hard and fast at a rate of 100 to 200 compressions/minute.

Continue CPR on the person until they start breating normally or help arrives.

CHOKING FIRST AID

Observe for signs of choking. If the victim can’t cry, cough or speak, shout for someone to call 911, and immediately follow the following steps.

Infant (under 1 year old)

5 Back Thumps (See Figure 1)

  • Sit or kneel down, then hold the infant face down on your forearm with the head slightly lower than the chest.
  • Thump the infant gently but firmly five times on the middle of the back using the heel of your hand.

5 Chest Thrusts (See Figure 2)

  • If the above doesn’t work, turn the infant face up on your forearm, resting on your thight with the head lower than the body.
  • Using two fingers placed at the center of the infant’s breastbone, give five quick chest compressions. Press down about 1 1/2 inches, and let the chest rise again in between each compression.
  • Repeat the sequence of 5 back thumps and 5 chest thrusts until the object is forced out or the infant becomes conscious.

Adults & Children (over 1 year old)

Apply Abdominal Thrusts (See Figure 3)

  • Stand behind the victim. Wrap your arms around the person’s waist and tip the person forward slightly. If a child is choking, kneel down behind the child.
  • Make a fist with one hand. Position it slightly above the person’s navel.
  • Grasp the fist with your other hand. Press hard into the abdomen with a quick upward thrust – as if trying to lift the person up.
  • Perform abdominal thrusts until the object is forced out or the person becomes unconscious.

For Pregnant Women (See Figure 4)

Do high abdominal thrusts. Stand behind the person, wrap your arms around them, and position your hands at the base of the breast bone. Quickly pull inward and upward. Repeat until the object is forced out or the person becomes unconscious.

NOTE FOR ALL UNCONSCIOUS VICTIMS:  If the victim becomes unconscious while giving choking aid, call 911 and begin standard CPR with chest compressions and rescue breaths.

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